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These encounters made me reconsider.

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I observed design students who were acting mindlessly, simply doing their assignments as presented. No creativity, no imagination, no questioning. That's not what design thinking is about. As a result, I have changed my mind: Design Thinking really is special. Alas, it isn't embraced by all designers, but where it exists, it is powerful. However, if we call this "design thinking," then shouldn't all designers do it? I now have rethought that earlier article.

I still stand by the major points, but I have changed the conclusion. Let me explain. The book is 25 years old, and although the fundamental principles described within it are unchanged, the examples were so much out of date that they referred to technologies today's young generation of students have never experienced phonograph, typewriter, slide projector, etc.

Moreover, design has changed a lot in the past 25 years and I, myself, have changed with it. When I wrote the book, I was an academic teaching in a department of cognitive science and did not call myself a designer. Today, I do proudly call myself a designer. Moreover, I am now experienced in the world of business. All these changes have informed the revision of DOET. In particular, I added two new chapters: one on design methods, the other on the reality of design practice in the world of business.

Design methods. I originally called the design methods chapter "Human-Centered Design. Designers have developed a number of techniques to avoid being captured by too facile a solution. They take the original problem as a suggestion, not as a final statement, then think broadly about what the real issues underlying this problem statement might really be for example by using the "Five Whys" approach to get at root causes.

Most important of all, is that the process is iterative and expansive. Designers resist the temptation to jump immediately to a solution to the stated problem. Instead, they first spend time determining what the basic, fundamental root issue is that needs to be addressed. They don't try to search for a solution until they have determined the real problem, and even then, instead of solving that problem, they stop to consider a wide range of potential solutions. Only then will they finally converge upon their proposal.

This process is called "Design Thinking. Design thinking. I decided it was time to rethink my position. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. Bentley, R. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work.


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Invisible Aid or Technical Hindrance. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. De Cindio, F. MCC, Austin, pp. De Michelis, G. Zucchermaglio, S. Bagnara and S. Stucky eds. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp.

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Schlageter eds. Dourish, P. The relationship between city policies and national policies—including policies that encourage alternatives to concentrating growth in larger cities—is an important challenge. Another aspect of the challenge of making a city manageable is dealing with unrealistic expectations in an era of burgeoning technological possibilities.

Overly high expectations can affect the stability of a city and may even have a global impact.

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The problem is particularly acute in the developing world. The city. The biosoma is an entity created by the interaction of: a biological component human inhabitants, as well as other forms of life, such as vegetation and microorganisms ; a social component the ensemble of collective activities, ideas, and organizations of the inhabitants ; and a machine component the tangible and intangible artifacts that support the life of the city. Each component of the biosoma has distinctive influences on the function and design of the city. The biological component can self-replicate and can be recycled by nature e.

In addition, human emotions and feelings play a crucial role in the creation of a city caring and emotionally satisfying. The characteristics of the machine component include reliability, precision, and power, but also inflexibility.

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The characteristics of the social component fall somewhere in between. Like the machine component, the social component increases the reach of the individual and may also embody reliability, precision, and power e. The key to an effective balance is to ensure that the human biological component is not overwhelmed and made to feel powerless by the infrastructure or by the social organization of the city. For example, there must be a balance between bioremediation and traditional methods of water and wastewater treatment or between tasks performed by humans and those performed by machines e.

Finding a balance has far-reaching implications for making a city caring or a city manageable. Thus, a totally automated city, which is technically possible, would also be an inhuman city. The balance between humans and other species will determine the extent to which a city favors biological diversity—the plants and animals that enrich the human environment. Trade-offs between materials and energy range from a simple, but ecologically significant, trade-off between using insulation instead of active. The trade-offs between biological and machine energy affect the extent to which walking or bicycling replaces motorized means of transportation, an important consideration in the design of cities as clusters of neighborhoods.

Biosomic cities based on balances and trade-offs will continually evolve. Society will continue to be transformed by the push and pull of innovations; and the machine component will continue to change with advances in information and telecommunications technology and the development of new materials, energy technologies, and methods of construction, reconstruction, and recycling. As each component of the biosoma changes, the balance among them must also change.

The emerging knowledge city and ecoindustrial city are embryonic manifestations of the biosomic city of the future Figure 5. In the knowledge city, the emphasis for each component of the biosoma is on knowledge and information: in the biological component, on learning and biotechnology; in the social component, on education and e-business; and in the machine component, on computers, telecommunications, and nanotechnology. One instrument of the knowledge city, the knowledge park, is congruent with the concept of neighborhoods and clusters.

The knowledge park coalesces socioeconomic activities around institutions that generate knowledge e. The knowledge park provides a new organizing principle for the knowledge city by transforming the urban environment and providing an enormous economic boost. A case in point is Metrotech, catalyzed in Brooklyn, New York, by Polytechnic University, which has attracted some 20, jobs around the university, mostly in information technology and telecommunications, and has revitalized a significant part of downtown Brooklyn Bugliarello, Although the need for face-to-face interactions will continue, an increasingly important aspect of the evolving knowledge city is virtuality—the ability to conduct business transactions and other social interactions at a distance.

In the ecoindustrial city, the waste created by one industry becomes the input for another. In addition, the biological and machine components are integrated and support each other e. A pioneering example of this integration is the Danish city of Kalundborg Graedel, Whatever shape the city of the future assumes, the challenge to planners, managers, and citizens will be to determine consciously the most desirable biological-social-machine balance.

The city of the future will present unprecedented engineering challenges, such as maintaining internal conditions within acceptable limits as the city is exposed to changes in temperature, winds, floods, and earthquakes, as well as to anthropogenic disasters, such as war and terrorism. The overall engineering challenge will be to limit the effects of these changes through design and operational decisions. For instance, although a city totally covered by a dome is unrealistic, a skyline—the location and configuration of structures—engineered to affect temperature and wind patterns is entirely feasible.

A second challenge will be to. A third challenge will be to develop technologies that address problems at the microscale of the neighborhood or the individual home, such as in-house energy transformers, waste disposal and recycling systems, and virtual offices. In appropriate situations, these technologies could provide alternatives to macroscale technologies, such as trunk utilities and other centralized services.

But the will to transform the city will be even more important and generally more difficult to mobilize.