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This principle may also be applied when we study the Bible, if we keep in mind that the Bible was written by male scribes of a certain social class — not by the people. What we read is what those ancient scribes wanted their readers to think or believe — a presentation of their own ideology. There was most likely a difference between their normative picture of Israelite religion, and the role of women presented in the Bible, and what really took place.

There is much evidence that the type of religion promoted by the scribes and prophets was not widely accepted by the people, or even by the royal family during the rule of the kings. The idea of pure monotheism took a long time to spread and take a firm hold. This distinction seems to me to be too sharp; in ancient cultures, belief and ritual were most likely two sides of the same thing.

This multilevel cultic participation seems to have been the case in Ancient Israel. Why would that be? The writing of the texts and the later editing took a long time. Scholars still do not agree on how, or when, this process took place or who wrote the different texts. So let us look at the texts as they are, but remember that the scribes may have condemned practices that were accepted by a large part of the population.

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Any way we look at it, women seem to have presented a problem for the writers in whose worldview the male was the real human. Women tend to be presented as stereotypes, either as good wives and mothers, or as dangerous sexy temptresses and whores, and they are often accused of serving the goddess. Women are irresponsible and their actions must be controlled by laws.

Real women faced many hardships and restrictions, but their problems fade when we compare them with the fate of the metaphorical women constructed by some of the Prophets, who choose to use unfaithful wives as metaphors for Israel and Judah.


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These unfortunate women are described in the most hostile and degrading ways — as unfaithful and sex-crazed wives who have to be punished harshly before being forgiven by their husbands. As Athalia Brenner points out, parts of the book of Jeremiah can only be described as pornography. These male pictures of women seem to have a lasting durability; they are still alive today. The main purpose of biblical women seems to be the making of sons. The Bible also presents active and independent women, but independent acting is only accepted when it serves the family, especially upholding a male line — or when it seems necessary to save the nation.

Women outside the control of men were considered dangerous, especially the divorcee or widow. Women with formal power were also considered a threat, and so were foreign women. This would cause a problem in the royal family, where political alliances often caused the king to take foreign wives.

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The foreign wives of Salomon were accused of introducing foreign worship, and therefore of the later partition of the kingdom. In the neighbouring countries royal women were also high priestesses and took an active part in royal intrigues and plots. As far as we know, women had no cultic functions in the official cult in Temple in Jerusalem or in the rule of the country. Why was that? The Hebrew God: The God of the Bible is not part of nature like the gods of Ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt; he stands outside of creation and has no form. He is not represented by statues in human or animal form.

It is important to realize that neither in Mesopotamia nor in Egypt were the statues though to be the gods. God is therefore usually conceived as a male who rules and creates without female assistance — something quite extraordinary in the ancient Middle East where male gods needed female cooperation in creation, and often also in upholding and ruling the universe. But the breath of life was blown into the new creation by a goddess Hathor. In the Bible a male God does both Gen.

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What else can we learn from the creation story? Why did the role of women develop in the way it did? In the middle of the Garden of Eden God placed two special trees — the tree of life and the tree of knowledge. The ancient Israelites probably knew this symbol since migrations, business and war led to cultural exchange.

The tree of knowledge of good and bad is the only tree whose fruit is forbidden to men. Before creating Eve, God tells Adam that eating from this tree would cause death. It looks as if God wants man to take care of his garden, not to develop morality and culture.

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This is very strange when we think about the importance of knowledge in later Judaism. Is it a coincidence that knowledge and culture was often the domain of women in Middle Eastern mythology? In Egypt both Isis and Hathor represented culture and knowledge. In the Genesis story it is the woman, Eve, who on the suggestion of the snake also an ancient female symbol , breaks a divine prohibition for the purpose of obtaining wisdom.

Adam only more or less mindlessly follows her lead. Then he blames his wife. He is punished by having to work hard to obtain food. As a divine punishment Eve is promised painful births and a future where she will be ruled over by her husband — the same husband who just had just been led or tempted by her. This was to be the model in times to come. Women in neighbouring countries were protected by powerful mother goddesses, especially in dangerous situations like pregnancy and childbirth.

In the Bible, a male God closes and opens the womb of women, it is he who decides who is barren and who is fertile and he does not usually talk directly to women. When the national god promised suffering, not help, it should come as no surprise to learn that Israelite homes and graves show that Middle Eastern symbols of renewal, goddess figurines, amulets, pendants etc. But there was also another important consequence of their disobedience.

After eating the apple, Adam and Eve felt their nakedness and sex; they needed clothes, something that symbolises culture in Middle Eastern myth. The first connection between woman and sinful sex is made and man has to protect himself from her temptations — an idea that proved to have long lasting impact on the construction of female stereotypes.

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This idea was not new. In the Mesopotamian Gilgamesh epos, Enkidu the wild man of nature is introduced to sex and culture through a servant of Ishtar. But it is important to remember that her curiosity also caused culture to be born. But that does not mean that they did not take part in any worship at all either in the Temple or in the home.

The Israelites are admonished not to marry the women of other nations living in the land. At times she may also have had a place in the temple. Could the Temple also have been a place where alternative cults took place — cults that had roles for women? Jeremiah —21 tells about women baking cakes for the Queen of Heaven in the streets of Jerusalem.

In Jer. The scribes probably included these texts to show how depraved the people had become, but maybe they tell us something about the great span of practice in Ancient Judah. What does all this tell us? Queens and ruling women: The royal women are identified by their relationship to husbands or sons. The Bible does not recognise Israelite royal wives as queens, not even Bathseba, wife of king David and mother of Salomon. It is an interesting fact though, that stamps and seals do show female, usually Egyptianized, symbols connected to both kings and royal servants.

The only possibility for women to obtain power seems to have been through a son. Maybe the beginning of the Jewish mother status? But in three cases an influential mother is bestowed the title Lady Gevira.


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In the modern Jewish Bible this word is translated as queen mother.